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   2009| January-June  | Volume 18 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 3, 2009

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Event-related potential: An overview
Shravani Sur, VK Sinha
January-June 2009, 18(1):70-73
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57865  PMID:21234168
Electroencephalography (EEG) provides an excellent medium to understand neurobiological dysregulation, with the potential to evaluate neurotransmission. Time-locked EEG activity or event-related potential (ERP) helps capture neural activity related to both sensory and cognitive processes. In this article, we attempt to present an overview of the different waveforms of ERP and the major findings in various psychiatric conditions.
  128 27,130 2,502
Loneliness, depression and sociability in old age
Archana Singh, Nishi Misra
January-June 2009, 18(1):51-55
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57861  PMID:21234164
Background: The elderly population is large in general and growing due to advancement of health care education. These people are faced with numerous physical, psychological and social role changes that challenge their sense of self and capacity to live happily. Many people experience loneliness and depression in old age, either as a result of living alone or due to lack of close family ties and reduced connections with their culture of origin, which results in an inability to actively participate in the community activities. With advancing age, it is inevitable that people lose connection with their friendship networks and that they find it more difficult to initiate new friendships and to belong to new networks. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationships among depression, loneliness and sociability in elderly people. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 55 elderly people (both men and women). The tools used were Beck Depression Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale and Sociability Scale by Eysenck. Results: Results revealed a significant relationship between depression and loneliness. Conclusion: Most of the elderly people were found to be average in the dimension of sociability and preferred remaining engaged in social interactions. The implications of the study are discussed in the article.
  113 34,890 1,537
Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school
Vivek Bansal, Sunil Goyal, Kalpana Srivastava
January-June 2009, 18(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57859  PMID:21234162
Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-12 and BDI. Also socio­demographic data (e.g. academic performance, marital harmony of parents, bullying in school, etc) was collected in a separate semi-structured performa. Statistical analysis was done with Fisher's Exact Test using SPSS17. Results: 15.2% of school-going adolescents were found to be having evidence of distress (GHQ-12 score e"14); 18.4% were depressed (BDI score e"12); 5.6% students were detected to have positive scores on both the instruments. Certain factors like parental fights, beating at home and inability to cope up with studies were found to be significantly (P <0.05) associated with higher GHQ-12 scores, indicating evidence of distress. Economic difficulty, physical punishment at school, teasing at school and parental fights were significantly (P <0.05) associated with higher BDI scores, indicating depression. Conclusion: The study highlights the common but ignored problem of depression in adolescence. We recommend that teachers and parents be made aware of this problem with the help of school counselors so that the depressed adolescent can be identified and helped rather than suffer silently.
  19 11,927 700
Understanding delusions
Chandra Kiran, Suprakash Chaudhury
January-June 2009, 18(1):3-18
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57851  PMID:21234155
Delusion has always been a central topic for psychiatric research with regard to etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and forensic relevance. The various theories and explanations for delusion formation are reviewed. The etiology, classification and management of delusions are briefly discussed. Recent advances in the field are reviewed.
  15 29,578 1,707
Impact of doctor-patient communication on preoperative anxiety: Study at industrial township, Pimpri, Pune
Vandana B Nikumb, Amitav Banerjee, Gurleen Kaur, Suprakash Chaudhury
January-June 2009, 18(1):19-21
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57852  PMID:21234156
Background: Anxiety may not be recognized by physicians though they affect a large number of patients awaiting surgery as reported in some studies. Good doctor-patient communication may have an impact on preoperative anxiety. Aim: To find out the incidence of anxiety in patients awaiting surgery and its association with good doctor-patient communication. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in a medical college hospital situated in an industrial township, for the duration of two months. It was a cross-sectional study. The study included 79 patients admitted to various surgical wards of a teaching hospital. Data was collected on a pretested questionnaire, which included a set of questions on various aspects of doctor-patient communication. The level of anxiety was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Statistical analysis was carried out using the WHO/CDC package EPI INFO 2002. Though preoperative anxiety was collected on an ordinal scale, later during analysis, it was collapsed to give a categorical scale. Aspects of doctor-patient communication associated with preoperative anxiety were explored by Chi square tests. Results: Out of the total 79 patients, 26.5% reported definite anxiety levels. Good doctor-patient communication was found to be inversely associated with anxiety levels in the preoperative period. Conclusions: Preoperative anxiety is a common phenomenon among indoor surgical patients. A lot can be done to alleviate this anxiety by improving doctor-patient communication.
  11 7,150 180
The short-form revised Eysenck personality questionnaire: A Hindi edition (EPQRS-H)
Trayambak Tiwari, Anju L Singh, Indramani L Singh
January-June 2009, 18(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57854  PMID:21234158
Background: There is a growing consensus about the validity of human personality traits as important dispositions toward feelings and behaviors (Matthews, Deary,& Whiteman, 2003). Materials and Methods: Here we examine the reliability of the Hindi translation of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (EPQR-S; Eysenck, Eysenck,& Barrett, 1985), which consists of 48 items that assess neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and lying. The questionnaire was first translated into Hindi and then back translated. Subsequently, it was administered to 202 students (78 men and 124 women) from Banaras Hindu University. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated. Results: The findings provide satisfactory psychometric properties of the extraversion, neuroticism and lie scales. The psychoticism scale, however, was found to be less satisfactory. Conclusion: It can be proposed that due to satisfactory internal consistency scores, the EPQRS-H is a reliable scale for the measurement of various personality traits.
  8 16,785 908
Insight and its relationship with stigma in psychiatric patients
Deepak K Mishra, Sarika Alreja, KS Sengar, Amool R Singh
January-June 2009, 18(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57858  PMID:21234161
Background: The literature on insight has paid insufficient attention to the social experiences that are associated with receiving and endorsing a diagnosis of mental illness. The psychological and behavioral commitments associated with insight extend beyond agreeing with a diagnosis and accepting treatment to include taking on the identity of an individual diagnosed with mental illness. This study sought to examine the relationship between insight and stigma in psychiatric patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of insight and stigma was done using the system adopted by Kaplan and Sadock in their comprehensive textbook of psychiatry and Felt Stigma Scale in 100 psychiatric patients (40 patients suffering from Bipolar affective disorder, 30 Schizophrenics, 20 Substance dependents and 10 with Obsessive Compulsive disorder). Results: It was found that the level of stigma felt by patients with insight was significantly higher than that felt by patients without insight. Conclusion: Though there is a certain extent of stigma present in patients without insight, as is expected, the level of stigma increases as the patients develop insight.
  8 4,977 230
Cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of social phobia
Richa Priyamvada, Sapna Kumari, Jai Prakash, Suprakash Chaudhury
January-June 2009, 18(1):60-63
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57863  PMID:21234166
Cognitive behavior therapy is probably the most well-known and the most practiced form of modern psychotherapy and has been integrated into highly structured package for the treatment of patients suffering from social phobia. The present case study is an attempt to provide therapeutic intervention program to a 27-year-old, unmarried Christian man suffering from social phobia. The patient was treated by using cognitive behavioral techniques. After 17 sessions of therapeutic intervention program, significant improvement was found. He was under follow-up for a period of 6 months and recovered to the premorbid level of functioning.
  6 9,999 332
Social development of children with mental retardation
Indrabhushan Kumar, Amool R Singh, S Akhtar
January-June 2009, 18(1):56-59
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57862  PMID:21234165
Background: Social development of children with mental retardation has implications for prognosis. The present study evaluated whether the social maturity scale alone can reflect on the social maturity, intellectual level and consequent adjustment in family and society of children with mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five mentally retarded children were administered Vineland Social Maturity Scale and Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale. Results: It was found that there was significant relationship between the measures of social maturity scale and the IQ of the subjects. Further it was found that with increasing severity of retardation, social development also decreases and age does not have any effect on social development. Conclusion: Social quotient increases from profound to mild level of retardation.
  5 11,543 460
Parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents
Babita Mahato, Arif Ali, Masroor Jahan, AN Verma, Amool R Singh
January-June 2009, 18(1):32-35
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57855  PMID:21234159
Aim: Overall aim of the study was to see parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 alcoholic and 30 non-alcoholic parents and their children taken from Kanke Block of Ranchi district. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic data sheet and Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1978) were administered to the children. Results: In a child's perception of father in various domains of parent-child relationship, significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward in loving and neglecting, and in child's perception of the mother. Significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, object punishment, indifferent and in neglecting. Conclusion: The result showed that the children of alcoholic parents tended to have more symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward loving and in neglecting than children of non alcoholic parents.
  5 9,166 255
Probability, clinical decision making and hypothesis testing
A Banerjee, SL Jadhav, JS Bhawalkar
January-June 2009, 18(1):64-69
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57864  PMID:21234167
Few clinicians grasp the true concept of probability expressed in the 'P value.' For most, a statistically significant P value is the end of the search for truth. In fact, the opposite is the case. The present paper attempts to put the P value in proper perspective by explaining different types of probabilities, their role in clinical decision making, medical research and hypothesis testing.
  5 6,988 293
Knowledge and practices of general practitioners regarding psychiatric problems
RK Chaudhary, BP Mishra
January-June 2009, 18(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57853  PMID:21234157
Background: Mental health problems account for 12% of global disease burden and non-psychiatrist medical practitioners deal with a large proportion of this burden. This study was planned to assess the knowledge, attitude and treatment practices of non-psychiatrist medical practitioners regarding mental health problems. Materials and Methods: One hundred Allopathic and 25 each of Homeopathic and Ayurvedic medical practitioners were interviewed and assessed using a semi-structured performa. Results: Majority (95%) of them were aware regarding etiology, increasing incidence and treatment facilities available for mental health problems. Treatment modalities include counseling and medication but 69.9% of them had not received any formal training in administering them. Conclusions: 98.5% practitioners providing mental health services at the primary level feel the need to be properly trained and oriented in the management of these patients to improve quality of healthcare.
  4 3,503 142
An experience of community mental health program in rural areas of Jharkhand
Shantna Kumari, SN Mishra, S Chaudhury, Amool R Singh, AN Verma, Sangeeta Kumari
January-June 2009, 18(1):47-50
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57860  PMID:21234163
Background: In the present era, mental disability is a major public health problem in the society. Many of the mental disabilities are correctable if detected early. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and pattern of mental disability. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study. Patients of all age groups in the age range of 0-60 years were randomly selected from 10 blocks of 2 districts, viz., Ranchi and Hazaribagh. Thirty villages from each block were taken for the study. The study was conducted by making house-to-house visits, interviewing and examining all the individuals in the families selected using pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: It was done by the proportions. Results and Conclusion: The prevalence of mental disability was found higher among males (67.9%) than among females (32.1%). The prevalence rate was higher among the productive groups and among individuals with low socioeconomic status. There is scope of community-based rehabilitation of the mentally disabled.
  2 4,579 234
Mental health and industry: Dynamics and perspectives
Kalpana Srivastava
January-June 2009, 18(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57850  PMID:21234154
  1 3,445 219
Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants
M Chaturvedi, T Purushothaman
January-June 2009, 18(1):36-38
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57856  PMID:21234160
Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of 'The Occupational Stress Indicator' (Wendy Lord, 1993) consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of 't' test and 'F' test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.
  - 5,862 175