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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 248-254

The appraisal-distress relationship of auditory hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia: The moderating role of metacognitive beliefs


1 Department of Psychology, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Suprakash Chaudhury
Department of Psychiatry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_248_21

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Background: Appraisal of hallucinatory voices plays a significant role in anxiety and depression among patients with auditory hallucinations. Metacognitive beliefs are also associated with psychological distress in schizophrenia patients. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring the role of metacognitive beliefs on the appraisal-distress relationship, specifically, the overemphasis laid on the need to maintain consistency among thoughts and avoid cognitive dissonance. Aim: The aim of the study is to study the role of metacognitive beliefs on the appraisal-distress relationship. Materials and Methods: A total of 126 schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations were selected through purposive sampling technique. The participants were assessed on Hindi version of beliefs about voices questionnaire-revised (BAVQ-R), hospital anxiety and depression scale, metacognition questionnaire-short, and modified (MCQ-SAM). Results: Correlation analysis indicated significant relationship between the dimensions of BAVQ-R (i.e., benevolence, malevolence, and omnipotence) and MCQ-SAM (i.e., cognitive self-consciousness, positive beliefs about worry, importance of consistency of thoughts, and beliefs about normal experience of unwanted thoughts), depression and anxiety. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that benevolence, malevolence, and importance of consistency of thoughts were predictors of anxiety; malevolence, importance of consistency of thoughts and positive beliefs about worry were predictors of depression. Results of moderation analysis indicated that malevolent beliefs about voices predict the intensity of distress among clinical voice-hearers, and importance of consistency of thoughts plays a moderating role in this appraisal-distress relationship. Conclusion: In schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations, the appraisal-distress relationship is strengthened when the need to maintain cognitive consistency is over-emphasized.


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