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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 335-340

Association between emotional and behavioral problems and perceived parenting in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An exploratory study

1 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Base Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Clinical Psychology, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Biostatistics, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bikram Kumar Dutta
Department of Psychiatry, Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, New Delhi - 110 010
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_106_21

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Background: Parent–child relationship difficulties are seen in families of children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and they may contribute to long-term negative outcomes. Aim: Our aim was to examine perceived parenting and its correlation with emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 38 children and adolescents, between 8 and 16 years of age, diagnosed to have ADHD. Parents rated the children and adolescents on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), whereas children/adolescents rated parents on the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ). Results: The study population primarily consisted of males (86.8%), between 8 and 12 years (68%), and belonged to urban families (82%). Warm, attentive, and engaged parenting behaviors which were subsumed under the domain of parental involvement in the APQ were associated with fewer total problem behaviors as well as specifically lower conduct and peer problems on the SDQ. Similarly, parents who used positive disciplining strategies as per the APQ had fewer total behavioral problems as well as specifically lower emotional problems on the SDQ. Children with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder reported lesser mean scores in all domains of parenting and significantly in the domains of parental involvement and positive parenting as per the APQ. Conclusions: Parental involvement and positive parenting were significantly associated with fewer emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. This has direct implications for clinical practice. Further studies are needed to adapt parenting strategies to the Indian context.

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