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Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers
P Bhuyar, A Banerjee, H Pandve, P Padmnabhan, A Patil, S Duggirala, S Rajan, S Chaudhury
January-June 2008, 17(1):21-25
Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.
  29,685 492 -
Loneliness, depression and sociability in old age
Archana Singh, Nishi Misra
January-June 2009, 18(1):51-55
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57861  PMID:21234164
Background: The elderly population is large in general and growing due to advancement of health care education. These people are faced with numerous physical, psychological and social role changes that challenge their sense of self and capacity to live happily. Many people experience loneliness and depression in old age, either as a result of living alone or due to lack of close family ties and reduced connections with their culture of origin, which results in an inability to actively participate in the community activities. With advancing age, it is inevitable that people lose connection with their friendship networks and that they find it more difficult to initiate new friendships and to belong to new networks. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationships among depression, loneliness and sociability in elderly people. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 55 elderly people (both men and women). The tools used were Beck Depression Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale and Sociability Scale by Eysenck. Results: Results revealed a significant relationship between depression and loneliness. Conclusion: Most of the elderly people were found to be average in the dimension of sociability and preferred remaining engaged in social interactions. The implications of the study are discussed in the article.
  11,565 335 28
Understanding delusions
Chandra Kiran, Suprakash Chaudhury
January-June 2009, 18(1):3-18
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57851  PMID:21234155
Delusion has always been a central topic for psychiatric research with regard to etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and forensic relevance. The various theories and explanations for delusion formation are reviewed. The etiology, classification and management of delusions are briefly discussed. Recent advances in the field are reviewed.
  9,584 391 2
Personal effectiveness as a function of psychological androgyny
N Maheshwari, V Kumar
January-June 2008, 17(1):39-45
Background: 'Think-manager, think-male' stereotype had lived its age and the time is ripe to give way to a Psychologically Androgynous manager, who is more personally effective. Irrespective of one's sex, he/she possesses both the masculine as well as feminine attributes and practices them as the situation so desires. Material & Method : 350 male management students were categorized under three groups viz. Typically Sex-typed, Androgynous and Undifferentiated by using Bem's Sex-role Inventory (1974). Their Personal Effectiveness scores were obtained using Pareek's Personal Effectiveness Scale(2001). Mean, S.D., t-ratio and Pearson's Correlation was calculated. Results : Three groups were found to be significantly different in terms of their Personal Effectiveness. Psychologically Androgynous group was found to be most personally effective on the dimensions of self-disclosure, benefit from feedback & perceptiveness or sensitivity to others' feelings. Also, significant correlation existed between Psychological Androgyny and Personal Effectiveness vis-à-vis the other sex-role orientations. Conclusion : Androgynous sex-role orientation predicts personal effectiveness in management students.
  8,237 161 -
The short-form revised Eysenck personality questionnaire: A Hindi edition (EPQRS-H)
Trayambak Tiwari, Anju L Singh, Indramani L Singh
January-June 2009, 18(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57854  PMID:21234158
Background: There is a growing consensus about the validity of human personality traits as important dispositions toward feelings and behaviors (Matthews, Deary,& Whiteman, 2003). Materials and Methods: Here we examine the reliability of the Hindi translation of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (EPQR-S; Eysenck, Eysenck,& Barrett, 1985), which consists of 48 items that assess neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and lying. The questionnaire was first translated into Hindi and then back translated. Subsequently, it was administered to 202 students (78 men and 124 women) from Banaras Hindu University. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated. Results: The findings provide satisfactory psychometric properties of the extraversion, neuroticism and lie scales. The psychoticism scale, however, was found to be less satisfactory. Conclusion: It can be proposed that due to satisfactory internal consistency scores, the EPQRS-H is a reliable scale for the measurement of various personality traits.
  8,036 296 2
Hypothesis testing, type I and type II errors
Amitav Banerjee, UB Chitnis, SL Jadhav, JS Bhawalkar, S Chaudhury
July-December 2009, 18(2):127-131
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62274  PMID:21180491
Hypothesis testing is an important activity of empirical research and evidence-based medicine. A well worked up hypothesis is half the answer to the research question. For this, both knowledge of the subject derived from extensive review of the literature and working knowledge of basic statistical concepts are desirable. The present paper discusses the methods of working up a good hypothesis and statistical concepts of hypothesis testing.
  8,069 149 13
Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review
Shivanand Kattimani, Balaji Bharadwaj
July-December 2013, 22(2):100-108
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.132914  PMID:25013309
Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.
  7,959 212 4
Social development of children with mental retardation
Indrabhushan Kumar, Amool R Singh, S Akhtar
January-June 2009, 18(1):56-59
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57862  PMID:21234165
Background: Social development of children with mental retardation has implications for prognosis. The present study evaluated whether the social maturity scale alone can reflect on the social maturity, intellectual level and consequent adjustment in family and society of children with mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five mentally retarded children were administered Vineland Social Maturity Scale and Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale. Results: It was found that there was significant relationship between the measures of social maturity scale and the IQ of the subjects. Further it was found that with increasing severity of retardation, social development also decreases and age does not have any effect on social development. Conclusion: Social quotient increases from profound to mild level of retardation.
  7,398 335 3
Self-harm by severe glossal injury in schizophrenia
Pookala S Bhat, PK Pardal, M Diwakar
July-December 2011, 20(2):134-135
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.102524  PMID:23271870
Self-mutilation, the deliberate destruction occurs in a variety of psychiatric disorders.Many methods of self-destructive behavior have been described in literature. Patients of schizophrenia are known to attempt self-harm due to command hallucination, catatonic excitement or because of associated depression, however severe glossal injury by biting has not been reported so far.Authors report case of self-harm of glossal injury by biting in schizophrenia.Treatment and management issues are discussed.
  7,082 22 2
Psychometric evaluation of a hindi version of positive-negative affect schedule
R Pandey, N Srivastava
January-June 2008, 17(1):49-54
Background - The present paper reports the development and psychometric evaluation of a Hindi version of the Positive-Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) originally developed in English by Watson, Clark, and Tellegen (1988). The PANAS is widely used tool for assessment of positive and negative affect in clinical as well as non-clinical setting and has also been used as a differential diagnostic tool for distinguishing the clinical depression from anxiety. Material & Method - A Hindi version of the PANAS (PANAS-H) was developed using the contemporary psychometric standards for developing transliteral equivalents and cross-cultural adaptation of psychological tests/scales. In order to evaluate the psychometric properties, the PANAS-H was administered on a relatively heterogeneous sample of 179 participants. The obtained data was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis) which identified two theoretically significant orthogonal factors. The mood adjectives reflecting the positive affect loaded significantly on factor-1 whereas the affective lexicons representing the negative emotional engagement loaded significantly on factor-2. On the basis of this pattern of factor loading the first factor was labeled as 'Positive Affect' (PA) and the second factor as 'Negative Affect' (NA). Results : A significant but low negative correlation was observed between PA and NA which suggests that PA and NA are not independent of each other. Item analysis done for each subscales revealed that the Hindi affective lexicon used for tapping the dimensions of PA and NA are reliable and valid and form a homogeneous item-pool. Conclusion : The reliability of the PA and NA subscales as well as that of the whole scale was found to be highly satisfactory (0.804 for PA, 0.776 for NA, and 0.658 for full scale). Overall, the findings suggest that 1) the PANAS-H can reliably and validly measure the PA and NA of Hindi speaking individuals, and 2) the PANAS-H measures two distinct (PA and NA) but negatively related dimensions of affect.
  6,300 236 -
Sociodemographic profile, clinical factors, and mode of attempt in suicide attempters in consultation liaison psychiatry in a tertiary care center
Santosh Ramdurg, Shrigopal Goyal, Prashant Goyal, Rajesh Sagar, Pratap Sharan
January-June 2011, 20(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.98408  PMID:22969174
Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the criteria for suicide attempters were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma containing sociodemographic data, precipitating events, mode of attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis by using ICD-10. Results: The male-to-female ratio was similar. Adult age, urban background, employed, matriculation educated were more represented in this study. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder. Majority had a precipitating event prior to suicide attempt. The most common method of attempt was by use of corrosive. Conclusions: Majority of suicide attempter patients had mental illness. Early identification and treatment of these disorders would have prevented morbidity and mortality associated with this. There is a need of proper education of relatives about keeping corrosive and other poisonous material away from patients as it was being commonest mode of attempt.
  5,797 159 4
Event-related potential: An overview
Shravani Sur, VK Sinha
January-June 2009, 18(1):70-73
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57865  PMID:21234168
Electroencephalography (EEG) provides an excellent medium to understand neurobiological dysregulation, with the potential to evaluate neurotransmission. Time-locked EEG activity or event-related potential (ERP) helps capture neural activity related to both sensory and cognitive processes. In this article, we attempt to present an overview of the different waveforms of ERP and the major findings in various psychiatric conditions.
  5,229 173 20
Parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents
Babita Mahato, Arif Ali, Masroor Jahan, AN Verma, Amool R Singh
January-June 2009, 18(1):32-35
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57855  PMID:21234159
Aim: Overall aim of the study was to see parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 alcoholic and 30 non-alcoholic parents and their children taken from Kanke Block of Ranchi district. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic data sheet and Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1978) were administered to the children. Results: In a child's perception of father in various domains of parent-child relationship, significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward in loving and neglecting, and in child's perception of the mother. Significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, object punishment, indifferent and in neglecting. Conclusion: The result showed that the children of alcoholic parents tended to have more symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward loving and in neglecting than children of non alcoholic parents.
  5,205 142 2
The short-form of the revised junior Eysenck personality questionnaire: A Bengali edition
Avijit Roy
July-December 2012, 21(2):115-118
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.119600  PMID:24250043
Background: Personality measuring instrument plays an important role in many fields of human civilization and therefore, present study was aimed to find such an instrument for Bengali speaking juniors. Materials and Methods: Bengali translation of the short-form of the revised junior Eysenck personality questionnaire developed by Corulla was administered on a sample of 226 Bengali speaking students (99 boys and 127 girls) studying in class seven and eight taken from two urban and two rural schools. Internal consistency of each item under a subscale was calculated; internal consistency of each of the four subscales of the translated questionnaire was calculated; test-retest reliability was found with an interval of 3 months and inter-correlations between different subscales were found. Conclusion: The findings provided satisfactory psychometric properties of the extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie scale.
  5,212 52 1
Stress and adjustment among professional and non professional students
A Singh, S Singh
January-June 2008, 17(1):26-27
Background : Stress in modern life leads to several poor emotional adjustment among the professional students. Material & Methods : The present study was carried out to compare the stress and emotional adjustment of students of professional courses. They were administered on ESQ by Kapoor Bhargav India adaptation and Bell Adjustment Inventory Indian adaptation by S. Hussain to assess for stress and adjustment. Results : The main findings were professional students have more stress. The result also indicated that professional students were poorly emotionally adjusted in comparison to non-professional group. Conclusion : Professional students have more stress as compared to non-professional students. Psychological intervention inform of therapy will help these students to help better.
  4,968 282 -
Problematic use of social networking sites among urban school going teenagers
Parth Singh Meena, Pankaj Kumar Mittal, Ram Kumar Solanki
July-December 2012, 21(2):94-97
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.119589  PMID:24250039
Background: Social networking sites like Facebook, Orkut and Twitter are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends and meet other people based on shared interests. An exponential rise in usage of Social Networking Sites have been seen within the last few years. Their ease of use and immediate gratification effect on users has changed the way people in general and students in particular spend their time. Young adults, particularly teenagers tended to be unaware of just how much time they really spent on social networking sites. Negative correlates of Social Networking Sites usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. Aims: the aim of the study was to find out whether teenagers, specially those living in cities spend too much time on social networking websites. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects, both boys and girls were included in the cross sectional study who were given a 20 item Young's internet addiction test modified for social networking sites. The responses were analyzed using chi square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: 24.74% of the students were having occasional or 'frequency' problems while 2.02% of them were experiencing severe problems due to excessive time spent using social networking sites. Conclusion: With the ever increasing popularity of social media, teenagers are devoting significant time to social networking on websites and are prone to get 'addicted' to such form of online social interaction.
  5,108 118 3
Hallucinations: Etiology and clinical implications
Santosh Kumar, Subhash Soren, Suprakash Chaudhury
July-December 2009, 18(2):119-126
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62273  PMID:21180490
The literature on hallucinations is reviewed, including history; theoretical background from physiological, biochemical and psychological points of view; classification; causation; presentation in different psychiatric and neurological disorders and in normal persons. The available evidence suggests that hallucinations result from a failure of the metacognitive skills involved in discriminating between self-generated and external sources of information. Management of hallucinations is briefly discussed.
  4,907 175 3
Development of emotional stability scale
M Chaturvedi, R Chander
January-June 2010, 19(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.77634  PMID:21694789
Background: Emotional stability remains the central theme in personality studies. The concept of stable emotional behavior at any level is that which reflects the fruits of normal emotional development. The study aims at development of an emotional stability scale. Materials and Methods: Based on available literature the components of emotional stability were identified and 250 items were developed, covering each component. Two-stage elimination of items was carried out, i.e. through judges' opinions and item analysis. Results: Fifty items with highest 't' values covering 5 dimensions of emotional stability viz pessimism vs. optimism, anxiety vs. calm, aggression vs. tolerance., dependence vs. autonomy., apathy vs. empathy were retained in the final scale. Reliability as checked by Cronbach's alpha was .81 and by split half method it was .79. Content validity and construct validity were checked. Norms are given in the form of cumulative percentages. Conclusion: Based on the psychometric principles a 50 item, self-administered 5 point Lickert type rating scale was developed for measurement of emotional stability.
  4,948 131 1
Cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of social phobia
Richa Priyamvada, Sapna Kumari, Jai Prakash, Suprakash Chaudhury
January-June 2009, 18(1):60-63
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57863  PMID:21234166
Cognitive behavior therapy is probably the most well-known and the most practiced form of modern psychotherapy and has been integrated into highly structured package for the treatment of patients suffering from social phobia. The present case study is an attempt to provide therapeutic intervention program to a 27-year-old, unmarried Christian man suffering from social phobia. The patient was treated by using cognitive behavioral techniques. After 17 sessions of therapeutic intervention program, significant improvement was found. He was under follow-up for a period of 6 months and recovered to the premorbid level of functioning.
  4,736 136 -
Students' perception about mental illness
RK Mahto, PK Verma, AN Verma, AR Singh, S Chaudhury, K Shantna
July-December 2009, 18(2):92-96
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62267  PMID:21180484
Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students' opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female) from Ranchi University were purposively recruited for the study, and the 51-item Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) Scale was administered. Results: Majority of the students were from Hindu families, of whom 42 (84%) were males and 38 (68%) were females. With regard to OMI scale, the item, viz., 'The law should allow a woman to divorce her husband as soon as he has been confined in mental hospital with a severe mental illness', both male (46%) and female (56%) students were neutral (significant at 0.014, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall no significant level of difference emerged between male and female students with regard to opinion about mental illness.
  4,570 167 2
Impact of doctor-patient communication on preoperative anxiety: Study at industrial township, Pimpri, Pune
Vandana B Nikumb, Amitav Banerjee, Gurleen Kaur, Suprakash Chaudhury
January-June 2009, 18(1):19-21
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57852  PMID:21234156
Background: Anxiety may not be recognized by physicians though they affect a large number of patients awaiting surgery as reported in some studies. Good doctor-patient communication may have an impact on preoperative anxiety. Aim: To find out the incidence of anxiety in patients awaiting surgery and its association with good doctor-patient communication. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in a medical college hospital situated in an industrial township, for the duration of two months. It was a cross-sectional study. The study included 79 patients admitted to various surgical wards of a teaching hospital. Data was collected on a pretested questionnaire, which included a set of questions on various aspects of doctor-patient communication. The level of anxiety was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Statistical analysis was carried out using the WHO/CDC package EPI INFO 2002. Though preoperative anxiety was collected on an ordinal scale, later during analysis, it was collapsed to give a categorical scale. Aspects of doctor-patient communication associated with preoperative anxiety were explored by Chi square tests. Results: Out of the total 79 patients, 26.5% reported definite anxiety levels. Good doctor-patient communication was found to be inversely associated with anxiety levels in the preoperative period. Conclusions: Preoperative anxiety is a common phenomenon among indoor surgical patients. A lot can be done to alleviate this anxiety by improving doctor-patient communication.
  4,406 119 7
Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school
Vivek Bansal, Sunil Goyal, Kalpana Srivastava
January-June 2009, 18(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.57859  PMID:21234162
Background: Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30-50% of depressed patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional one-time observational study using simple screening instruments for detecting early symptoms of depression in adolescents. Two psychological instruments were used: GHQ-12 and BDI. Also socio­demographic data (e.g. academic performance, marital harmony of parents, bullying in school, etc) was collected in a separate semi-structured performa. Statistical analysis was done with Fisher's Exact Test using SPSS17. Results: 15.2% of school-going adolescents were found to be having evidence of distress (GHQ-12 score e"14); 18.4% were depressed (BDI score e"12); 5.6% students were detected to have positive scores on both the instruments. Certain factors like parental fights, beating at home and inability to cope up with studies were found to be significantly (P <0.05) associated with higher GHQ-12 scores, indicating evidence of distress. Economic difficulty, physical punishment at school, teasing at school and parental fights were significantly (P <0.05) associated with higher BDI scores, indicating depression. Conclusion: The study highlights the common but ignored problem of depression in adolescence. We recommend that teachers and parents be made aware of this problem with the help of school counselors so that the depressed adolescent can be identified and helped rather than suffer silently.
  4,188 242 9
Occupational health and psychological well-being of industrial employees
A Bhardwaj, A Srivastava
January-June 2008, 17(1):28-32
Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual's job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees' mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
  4,117 210 -
Organizational citizenship behavior
K Srivastava, D Saldanha
January-June 2008, 17(1):1-3
  4,116 186 -
Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder
Nitesh Prakash Painuly, Sandeep Grover, Surendra Kumar Mattoo, Nitin Gupta
July-December 2011, 20(2):115-119
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.102501  PMID:23271866
Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior) and quality of life (QOL). Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50%) had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.
  4,120 57 4